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Semaglutide Peptide and Pancreatic Beta Cells

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Analogous to glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), the Semaglutide peptide is a synthetic compound. GLP-1 peptide is an endogenous peptide hormone comprising 30 amino acids. Studies suggest this compound may improve insulin production, decrease blood sugar levels and preserve pancreatic beta cells by promoting insulin gene transcription. In addition, researchers suggest the molecule seems to slow down stomach emptying, which may reduce appetite. It would indicate that GLP-1 may significantly impact vital organs, such as the liver, kidneys, lungs and heart. Scientists hypothesize that as a GLP-1 receptor agonist, Semaglutide may decrease insulin and glucose levels in the blood, suppress appetite, and lead to weight reduction. [i]

Studies suggest the potential of the peptide might be realized via several different paths, including: [ii], [iii], [iv]

* Possible interaction with GLP-1 receptors, which would result in increased glucose-dependent insulin release.
* It is possible that this may prevent the release of glucagon and will stop glucose production in the liver.
* Possible mechanisms include the improved function of pancreatic beta cells, increasing the subject’s proinsulin to insulin ratio.
* Possible retardation of stomach motility and suppression of hunger leading to lower total body weight

Semaglutide Peptide Chemical Structure [iv]

Molecular Formula: C187H291N45O59
Weight per Molecular Unit: 4114 g/mol
Other names: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)

Semaglutide Peptide Research and Clinical Investigations

Semaglutide Peptide and Incretin

Incretins are a set of hormones generated by the digestive system in response to consuming food. They are thought to be responsible for potentially reducing blood glucose levels. Studies suggest that the surface of the beta cells that create the pancreas is where one may find GLP-1 receptors. Researchers hypothesize if and when the Semaglutide peptide binds, it has the potential to increase insulin production and assist in lowering the levels of glucose in the blood that are too high. [i]

According to J. J. Holst, “The main actions of GLP-1 may be to stimulate insulin secretion (i.e., to act as an incretin hormone) and to inhibit glucagon secretion, thereby contributing to limit postprandial glucose excursions.” The fact that Semaglutide peptide is an agonist for the GLP-1 receptor suggests that it might have a possible role in synthesizing incretin hormones and controlling blood sugar levels.

Semaglutide Peptide and Pancreatic Beta Cells

Semaglutide was provided in combination with Lisofylline and Exedin-4 in an experiment that was carried out on non-obese and diabetic mouse models. Lisofylline is a substance that is considered to inhibit the autoimmune ability, and Exedin-4 is a molecule that is considered to support the proliferation of beta cells. [vi]

Based on the findings, it appeared as if the peptide might stimulate the formation of pancreatic beta cells and inhibit the process of cellular death. The researchers speculated Semaglutide peptide helped maintain the normal glucose levels even up to 145 days after the peptide presence was removed from test models. In addition to preserving the pancreatic beta cells, this might help maintain the optimal glucose levels in the body.

Semaglutide Peptide and Appetite

Studies suggest GLP-1 receptor agonists such as Semaglutide may slow the movement of stomach acid, contributing to a feeling of satiety and reducing appetite. [i] Models derived from studies conducted on animals speculated that when these peptides were presented into the brain, they appeared to diminish the desire to eat food and therefore inhibited food intake. [vii]

Semaglutide Peptide and Cardiovascular Receptors

Research suggests that the GLP-1 receptors dispersed throughout the cardiovascular system may possibly support preserving normal cardiac function when stimulated. [viii] Scientists hypothesize that GLP-1 and its agonists may assist in maintaining appropriate blood pressure and minimizing the left ventricular diastolic pressure. If optimal blood pressure and left ventricular diastolic pressure are not maintained, this may lead to hypertrophy and cardiac issues; glucagon-like analog peptides including Semaglutide and Liraglutide peptide exhibit the potential to improve the cardiac muscles’ ability to absorb glucose. After a myocardial infarction, the heart muscle becomes ischemic and feeble, which are both conditions that may possibly be reversed under Semaglutide influence.

More investigation is required to explore its potential in scientific research, and these studies must continue. Only academic and scientific institutions can buy Semaglutide. If you are a licensed academic interested in buying peptides for your clinical studies, visit the Biotech Peptides website. Please be aware that none of the compounds mentioned are approved for human or animal consumption. Laboratory research compounds are only for in-vitro and in-lab use. Any kind of physical introduction is illegal. Only authorized professionals and working scientists may make purchases. The content of this piece is intended only for instructional purposes.

References

[i] Mahapatra MK, Karuppasamy M, Sahoo BM. Semaglutide is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist with cardiovascular benefits for the management of type 2 diabetes. Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2022 Jun;23(3):521-539. doi: 10.1007/s11154-021-09699-1. Epub 2022 Jan 7. PMID: 34993760; PMCID: PMC8736331. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8736331/

[ii] Knudsen LB, Lau J. The Discovery and Development of Liraglutide and Semaglutide. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Apr 12;10:155. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00155. PMID: 31031702; PMCID: PMC6474072.

[iii] Ahmann AJ, Capehorn M, Charpentier G, Dotta F, Henkel E, Lingvay I, Holst AG, Annett MP, Aroda VR. Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Exenatide ER in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN 3): A 56-Week, Open-Label, Randomized Clinical Trial. Diabetes Care. 2018 Feb;41(2):258-266. doi: 10.2337/dc17-0417. Epub 2017 Dec 15. PMID: 29246950.

[iv] Christou GA, Katsiki N, Blundell J, Fruhbeck G, Kiortsis DN. Semaglutide as a promising antiobesity drug. Obes Rev. 2019 Jun;20(6):805-815. doi: 10.1111/obr.12839. Epub 2019 Feb 15. PMID: 30768766

[v] National Center for Biotechnology Information (2022). PubChem Compound Summary for CID 56843331, Semaglutide.

[vi] Yang Z, Chen M, Carter JD, Nunemaker CS, Garmey JC, Kimble SD, Nadler JL. Combined treatment with lisofylline and exendin-4 reverses autoimmune diabetes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Jun 9;344(3):1017-22. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.177. Epub 2006 Apr 5. PMID: 16643856.

[vii] Blonde L, Klein EJ, Han J, Zhang B, Mac SM, Poon TH, Taylor KL, Trautmann ME, Kim DD, Kendall DM. Interim analysis of the effects of exenatide treatment on A1C, weight and cardiovascular risk factors over 82 weeks in 314 overweight patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Obes Metab. 2006 Jul;8(4):436-47. doi: 10.1111/j.1463-1326.2006.00602.x. PMID: 16776751.

[viii] Gros R, You X, Baggio LL, Kabir MG, Sadi AM, Mungrue IN, Parker TG, Huang Q, Drucker DJ, Husain M. Cardiac function in mice lacking the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor. Endocrinology. 2003 Jun;144(6):2242-52. doi: 10.1210/en.2003-0007. PMID: 12746281.

(Disclaimer: This is a sponsored article for informational or educational purposes only. As mentioned, this is strictly for medical professionals and not for human or animal consumption.)



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